Captain America is the perfect soldier, but he stopped using weapons after World War II. These are the reasons that Steve Rogers only used his Vibranium shield.
After The Avengers, he Captain America (Chris Evans) stopped using weapons in the UCM (Marvel Cinematic Universe) because I just didn't need to anymore. Avengers: Endgame was the high point of his life and after leading all of Earth's superheroes to defeat Thanos (Josh Brolin), Captain America personally returned the Infinity Stones to their proper places on the timeline. He then reunited with his true love, Peggy Carter (Hayley Atwell), and happily lived out the rest of his days, presumably also free to use weapons.
After he was repeatedly denied service in the US Army. USA During World War II, Steve Rogers was recruited into the Strategic Scientific Reserve (SSR) in 1943 by Dr. Abraham Erskine (Stanley Tucci). Steve became the first, and at that time, the only Erskine Super Soldier Serum test subject to transform him into a model of human perfection. Because Erskine was killed by Hydra, denying plans to create an army of super soldiers, Rogers became an artist for a fundraising tour and was given the costume and name of Captain America.
Eventually, he teamed up with the Howling Commandos and his best friend, Sergeant Bucky Barnes (Sebastian Stan), to wage numerous battles against the Nazis, Hydra, and Red Skull (Hugo Weaving). In 1945 Steve was lost in the Arctic ice and was presumed dead. But he was found cryogenically frozen and revived in 2012. Just in time to join the Avengers to repel the Chitauri invasion of New York City.
His most valuable item is his Vibranium shield, but as a trained soldier he has also used firearms.
Although that stopped doing it after Captain America: The First Avenger. During World War II, Rogers alternated between throwing his shield and shooting at his enemies with his Colt M1911A1 pistol, the weapon assigned to him by the Army. At his military base, Camp Lehigh, Steve trained with an M1 Garand rifle, although he was not seen using this weapon in real combat. During his publicity tour, Captain America raised a Thompson machine gun, but did not actually fire the weapon during the performances.
He was certainly proficient in the use of firearms as well as grenades. But the only time he was seen firing a weapon after World War II was during The Avengers when he picked up a rifle from a Loki mercenary (Tom Hiddleston) who was attacking the SHIELD Helicarrier to defend Hombre de Hierro (Robert Downey Jr.) while starting the propellers of the ship.
Rogers completely abandoned the use of weapons and never picked up a firearm during Captain America: The Winter Soldier. Not even when Hydra's teams or the Winter Soldier himself shot him. This is because when Steve joined SHIELD after The Avengers, he became a far superior heads-up fighter. Rogers quickly mastered several martial arts disciplines, as Batroc (Georges St-Pierre) discovered when they faced off. Captain America also became even more formidable by using his shield as a ranged weapon. Especially since it doesn't seem to "follow the laws of physics at all," something that Spider-man (Tom Holland) noted in Captain America: Civil War.
He did not want civilians to be injured.
But the most important reason Captain America avoided weapons is that he was no longer fighting a war. During World War II, weapons were a necessity as he was fighting an enemy army in a full-blown military conflict. And even then, Rogers used weapons sparingly. But after SHIELD disbanded and Captain America became the leader of the Avengers, he recognized that most of his operations would be conducted in civilian areas such as cities. Not using a weapon meant that you literally wouldn't be putting innocents in the line of fire and containing conflict became key.
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